Assessment is the documenting of knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs. It focuses on the individual learner, the institution, or the entire educational system. The purpose of assessment depends on the theoretical framework of the researchers, their assumptions, beliefs about the human mind, the origin of knowledge, and the learning process.

Measurement refers to the use of educational assessments and the analysis of data such as scores to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students. It includes the assigning of numerals to traits such as achievement, interest, attitudes, aptitudes, intelligence and performance.